Friday, April 29, 2011

Resident Asks Noisy Arrestee If He Could Please Keep It Down




Resident Asks Noisy Arrestee If He Could Please Keep It Down.

Guy Curses at cops after getting arrrested.

Arrested

Throw away the key

lock up.

Prison.

No bail

Friday, April 22, 2011

9 Sure-Fire Ways to Get Fired

9 Sure-Fire Ways to Get Fired



According to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, a 20-year-old public works employee was hired to "sweep, unplug sewers, fix potholes and perform various other chores" in Estevan, a city of about 10,000 people in Canada.

The man had several job-related problems, his supervisors said, so he didn't make it past the probationary period.

According to the 32-page arbitration decision, the biggest complaint was that "he was constantly texting and checking texts on his cell phone." Sent one day to patch potholes, the employee sent text messages instead, and, while he "sat in the truck texting," a supervisor said, his colleague did the work.

The man claims he was just texting his boss at his second job, and the union argued that his termination was outside policy. Nevertheless, he's still out of a job.


When you're bored at work and have access to a shrink wrap machine, what do you do? You shrink wrap your coworker, of course.

Yorktown police investigated and confirmed a March 2 report that was filed by the parents of a district employee, whose identity has not been made public. In the report was the claim that the employee had been tied up and photographed by co-workers in the maintenance shop for several minutes during school hours, when a cell phone video was also captured. At least one photo was posted on Facebook.

The pranksters were terminated. They protested, said it was a just a joke and claimed that the co-worker was in on it, too, laughing along with the perps and vowing to get them back when he had the chance.

Heavy winter storms required everyone in Cherry Hill, NJ to work together. One school employee said his workers were not available--and reportedly stirred a commotion in the way he responded.

"No, we will not be sending anyone else over,” Kevin Larson, facilities director, allegedly wrote to Woodcrest Elementary School Principal Beth Anne Kob. “All of my polar bears, trained seals and the two silver back mountain gorillas on loan from the township” are unavailable.



The school district apologized for the email and fired the sender.

Health care workers have access to all types of interesting and personal information. However, internal and external laws and regulations require that they not access it just for fun, which is what this employee is accused of doing.

The health authority’s chief executive officer, Karen McGrath, said the employee "inappropriately accessed” over 80 personal health information reports, which included personal information of at least 19 different people during a two-year period.

The facility apologized to patients and hired a consultant to improve patient privacy.


Alcohol and work shouldn't be mixed, except perhaps at the company Christmas party. Several Bowling Green State University employees forgot this rule. The Toledo Blade Reports:

A long-time equipment manager in the Bowling Green State University athletic department will retire after he and three other university employees were charged with open container violations in a university parking lot two weeks ago.

The open container violation is a misdemeanor, and the university did not terminate the three other employees.


When a patient's daughter began to suspect that her mother wasn't being treated right by nursing home employees, she hid a nanny-cam in a clock radio to observe the health care workers. The video later revealed the elderly mother being slapped and having her oxygen mask ripped off of her by an employee. NBC New York reported:

A New Jersey nursing home employee has been arrested for allegedly assaulting a terminally ill 87-year-old woman, who died two days later. The alleged attack was captured on a so-called "nanny cam."

Julia C. Galvan, 59, of North Bergen, was arrested on charges of assault and abuse and neglect of the elderly, and faces up to five years in prison. The alleged assault occurred at the Harborage, a 245-bed nursing home on River Road.

According to the police the assault contributed to the woman's death. Ms. Galvan, who was terminated from her job, said that she was stressed.


Working in law enforcement means that your coworkers also work in law enforcement and are trained to identify violations of the law.

Jailer Billie Joe Smith was arrested for sexual assault, as well as supplying prohibited items to inmates.

He was terminated after a long investigation and could end up in prison himself, if convicted.


Twitter can sometimes seem like a happy place where friendly converations take place. And friends understand that sometimes people say bad words. However, when it's your job to tweet and you represent someone other than, say, Charlie Sheen, bad words can be problematic. Social Barrel reports:

An employee of a social media agency that does work for Chrysler was terminated after dropping the F-bomb using ChryslerAutos Twitter account. Chrysler removed the offending Tweet, apologized, and said the employee who posted it has been terminated. However, some Twitter users, including @tverma29 had already re-Tweeted it before it was removed from Chrysler's twitter account, so it is now not possible to remove it from the web.

Chrysler apologized for the post and said that that statement does not reflect the company or its brands.


Put a pen in your pocket and accidentally take it home, and it's doubtful anyone will care. Start stealing computers, and you'll get noticed. The NonProfit Times reports:

Several members of the Council on Foundations’ (COF) information technology department are under criminal investigation for the alleged theft of equipment the organization is valuing at “being less than $200,000.”

The employees have been terminated and the case turned over to the Arlington, Va., police department, according to Ashley A. Mills, director of public relations for the council. She declined to say how many employees are involved or any other details, citing the ongoing investigation.

The foundation said it needs to increase employee awareness of what their coworkers are doing, so that they notice any irregularities. It's not enough just to trust that everyone is doing what they should be.

Thursday, April 14, 2011

Browser Security

Browser Security


One of the most basic ways to protect your computer from potentially harmful online content or malicious software is easy, fast and free. How? Just make sure your browser's security settings are set at the appropriate level.

But even if you use the highest security settings, you are only as safe as the actions you take online.
No matter which browser you use, always follow these top five security tips:
1. Delete spam messages without opening them or replying to them.
2. Use great caution when clicking on links sent to you in e-mail or text messages.
3. Do not open e-mail attachments unless you know the sender and you're expecting the attachment.
4. Create strong passwords. Use different passwords for your online banking accounts.
5. Make sure you use a firewall, as well as antivirus and antispyware software that is automatically updated.
What are the security settings on your browser? Here's how you can find out in Internet Explorer and Firefox.

How to check your Internet Explorer security settings:
1. Open Internet Explorer.
2. Click the Tools button and then click Internet Options.
3. Click the Security tab.

You will see four security zones:
• Internet: The level of security for the Internet zone is applied to all Web sites by default. The security level for this zone is set to medium-high, but you can change it to either medium or high. The only Web sites for which this security setting is not used are those in the Local Intranet zone, or sites that you specifically entered into the Trusted or Restricted Site zones.

• Local Intranet: The level of security for the Local Intranet zone is applied to Web sites and content that is stored on a corporate or business network. The security level for the Local Intranet zone is set to medium, but you can change it to any level.

• Trusted Sites: The level of security for Trusted Sites is applied to sites that you have specifically indicated to be ones that you trust not to damage your computer or information. The security level for Trusted Sites is set to medium, but you can change it to any level.
• Restricted Sites: The level of security for Restricted Sites is applied to sites that might potentially damage your computer or compromise your personal information. Adding sites to the Restricted zone does not block them, but it prevents them from using scripting or any active content. The security level for Restricted Sites is set to high and cannot be changed.
As you move around the Internet, IE automatically changes the security zone as needed and sets your security level for each Web site by default, ranging from low or medium-low for a corporate Intranet site, to high for a restricted site.

How to view or change the security settings on Internet Explorer 7/8:
In addition to these default security levels, you can customize individual security settings.
1. Open Internet Explorer.
2. Click the Tools button and then click Internet Options.
3. Click the Security tab.
4. Click the "Custom level..." button.
5. At the bottom of the pop-up box, you can reset the security setting to something higher or lower. Settings that are not at recommended levels will be highlighted in red.
6. If you modify your security settings and want to change them back to the default level, follow the above instructions through step 4. Then click on the "Reset all zones to default level" button.

How to view or change the security settings in Firefox 3x:
To make sure your security settings offer you the most protection, do the following:
1. Open Firefox.
2. Click on the Tools button and then click Options.
3. Click on the Security tab.

Step 1: Make sure the first three blocks are checked:
• Warn me when sites try to install add-ons.
Firefox will always ask you to confirm installations of add-ons. To prevent unrequested installation prompts that may lead to accidental installations, Firefox warns you when a Web site tries to install an add-on and blocks the installation prompt.

• Block reported attack sites.
Firefox will check whether the site you are visiting may be an attempt to interfere with normal computer functions or send personal data about you to unauthorized parties over the Internet.

• Block reported Web forgeries.
Firefox will actively check to determine whether the site you are visiting may be an attempt to mislead you into providing personal information, often referred to as "phishing."

Step 2: Passwords
Firefox saves your passwords by default, but if anyone else ever uses your computer, turn this feature off to protect your password security. To do this:
1. Open Firefox.
2. Click on the Tools button and then click Options.
3. Click on the Security tab.
4. Uncheck "Remember Passwords for Sites."

If you share your computer with others, you can set a Master Password in Firefox. This allows you to keep secure the username and passwords of Web sites you visit so no one else but you can access this information. To set a Master Password:
1. Open Firefox.
2. Click on the Tools button and then click Options.
3. Click on the Security tab.
4. Click "Use a master password." You'll be prompted to enter a password. (You can also follow these steps to change your Master Password.) A password-quality meter will judge the security of the password you have chosen.

IMPORTANT: Make sure you remember your Master Password! Without it, even you will not be able to access any of the information it protects or change the password.

Step 3: Warning Messages
1. Open Firefox.
2. Click on the Tools button and then click Options.
3. Click on the Security tab.
4. Click the Settings button that appears to the right of "Choose which warning messages you want to see while browsing the web."
5. At minimum, make sure the box is checked for "I am about to view a page that uses low-grade encryption."

More @ http://daol.aol.com/articles/how-to-tighten-your-browsers-security?icid=main|main|dl9|link1|http%3A%2F%2Fdaol.aol.com%2Farticles%2Fhow-to-tighten-your-browsers-security

The Vault

The Vault


The Vault Penthouse Suite - Pattaya Thailand

video




The Vault
118/13 Moo 10, Pratamnak Road, Pattaya
Nongprue, Banglamung, Chonburi, 20150





The Vault Penthouse Suite - Pattaya Thailand

video

The Vault Penthouse Suite - Pattaya Thailand


http://www.thevaultpattaya.com
----

The road to retirement is littered with distractions. In the hurly-burly of life, so many things compete for your attention that you can lose sight of what really matters most.

That's where MONEY's checklist comes in. We've created to-do lists for each of the main stages of retirement planning. Think of them as basic reminders you can set aside and refer to on occasion -- say, every year or so -- to make sure you're on the right track.

It needn't be a complicated list. Says Charles Farrell, a financial adviser and author of Your Money Ratios: "Simpler is better. Focus on a few key goals and you won't miss the forest for the trees."


TO DO: Mid-30s to early 40s

Goal: Develop the habit of saving.
Savings: 1.5 times your annual salary by age 35.
7 secrets to a richer retirement

* Take full advantage of my 401(k) match. Your employer-sponsored retirement plan is the easiest way to put your savings on autopilot. And if you take full advantage of your company match, you could earn 50% to 100% on your money before taking on any market risk.

* Boost my 401(k) contribution. As your paycheck grows, your savings rate should too. Sign up for "auto escalation" to boost your contributions by a percentage point or so a year. If your 401(k) doesn't offer this feature, sock away half or more of each raise.

* Find other tax-advantaged ways to save. Already maxing out on your 401(k)? If you make less than $120,000 -- or $177,000 for married couples filing jointly -- check out a Roth IRA. Already hitting the $5,000 annual IRA limit? Move on to investment options such as index funds that don't expose you to stiff tax bills.

* Cover six months of expenses. Make sure you've got an emergency stash, so if you get laid off you won't be forced to dip into your 401(k) and IRAs. Put this money in a safe place like an FDIC-insured bank account or CD, or a high-quality money-market fund.

* Invest for growth. You may feel skittish about stocks, given the recent market turmoil. But with retirement still two to three decades away, your best shot at building an adequate portfolio is to put most of your retirement savings -- 80% or so in your thirties -- in stocks and ride o

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Jobs

Here is a list of some other companies to look for jobs, excuse the url formats didn't have time to reformat as a link. Hope this help those looking for a job.


Computer- various locations(PROPS TO RUKUS FOR THE INFO) software developer, consultant etc..
http://www.okayainfo.com


Employment agency from laborer, machinist, maintenance to Engineering, banking etc.
(mostly southern region) UK agency too.
http://www.hirethinking.com/home.aspx?p_PageAlias=home

Work from home call center job thru alpineaccess.com
you have to have your own land line phone (no cell, no voip) and cable modem

A&E tv channel careers
https://www.abso.com/jobboard/default.aspx?JOBBOARDID=618
http://www.aetn.com/careers.html


[B]IT COMPUTER JOBS [/B] props to [U]gcat10[/U]
http://careers.joelonsoftware.com/jobs

http://jobs.com/

hubspot hiring IT tech, software engineers,business development, etc... cambridge mass. area
http://jobs.hubspot.com/start-up-jobs-boston/

architects
http://archinect.com/jobs/

health care career nursing, etc........ many locations
http://www.miracleworkers.com/WM/Default.aspx?ff=21


IT computer jobs
http://edoors.okayainfo.com/publishReq.do

jobs embassy worldwide
http://embassyjobsearch.com/?cat=3#

u.s. department of state
http://www.careers.state.gov/hiring.html

Teaching in new york for non teachers training
https://www.nycteachingfellows.org/Default.asp


Media jobs[B][/B]
http://www.mediabistro.com/joblistings

Agency
www.advantageresourcing.com
https://www.advantagestaffingjobs.com/advantageportal.cfm


charter school jobs
http://www.uscharterschools.org/cs/c/query/q/1565

Navy careers part-time etc.
http://jobsearch.monster.com/PowerSearch.aspx?re=106&co=xnavypost3x&ah=http://company.monster.com/navypost3&aj=U.S.+Navy&cn=U.S.+Navy

NY NON Profit jobs
http://www.camba.org/About/CareerOpportunities/tabid/302/Default.aspx

Virginia , MD areas and overseas Consultant, security, linguist, intelligence etc..various jobs
http://tbe.taleo.net/NA6/ats/careers/jobSearch.jsp?org=FEDSYSINC&cws=1

CNN TURNER TIME WARNER
http://www.timewarner.com/corp/careers


different locations/states mainly IT related jobs
https://gp.recruitmax.com//main/careerportal/default.cfm?szUniqueCareerPortalID=28750195-0091-437c-b65f-a6b4d40b130c&szIsJobBoard=0

IBM

https://jobs3.netmedia1.com/cp/search.jsp

AVIS
http://www.avis.com/car-rental/html/employment

ESPN
http://jobs.espncareers.com


http://www.tmprotection.com/careers.php

RETAIL various positions
http://jbcstyle.com/jobs/index.php?keyword=&location=&category=&job-type=&dosearch=1

Satellite cable installations

http://jobs.clickonf5.org/a/jobs/find-jobs/q-Satellite+Tv+Installer+/+Technician

[B]Physics and engineer jobs[/B]
http://careers.physicstoday.org/jobs

PEPSI
ADMINISTRATION, FINANCE, ENTRY LEVEL DRIVER, ETC....
http://careers.pepsico.com/viewalljobs

MERCY CORPS
Portland and d.c area administration, accounting, non profit
https://hostedjobs.openhire.com/epostings/submit.cfm?fuseaction=app.allpositions&company_id=15927&version=1


[B]Time warner cable [/B]various positions NY, California, Georgia etc..
https://careers.timewarner.com/1033/asp/tg/cim_home.asp?PartnerId=391&SiteId=36

[B]Whole foods[/B]
http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/careers/index.php

[B]international and united states non profit jobs, management, administration[/B],
http://tbe.taleo.net/NA2/ats/careers/jobSearch.jsp?org=IRC&cws=1




[B][U]various positions from computer tech to social worker,retail,overseas etc...[/U][/B]
select your home state
jp morgan chase VARIOUS LOCATIONS
https://jpmchase.taleo.net/careersection/2/joblist.ftl


calvin klein
retail job, administrator,I.T, to entry level various position
https://2xrecruit.kenexa.com/kr/cc/pvh/cc.html


http://civilianjobs.com/

retail , henri bendel, the body shop corporate to entry level positions
http://henribendel.jobs/hb/job_start_per.asp

select your home state
job search different states
www.job-hunt.org

[B]jobs overseas[/B]
http://www.gulftalent.com

security, police
http://www.nps.gov/uspp/recruitng.htm

Federal aviation, inspector jobs, computer, engineer, analyst, etc.. various states
http://jobs.faa.gov/announcement_summary.asp

Airport security various states around the country
www.tsa.gov

mostly tech computer related various locations
http://globalsecurity.clearancejobs.com/jobs/?N=0&RC=25&Ns=p_TimeStamp|1

engineer various locations
http://www.emcengineers.com/emc/employment.html

those with security or military backgrounds and some IT Computer
http://www.libertyparkusafd.org/lp/Hale/curriculum/List%20of%20Military%20Service%20Provider%20Companies.htm

AFRICA JOBS and some many IT computer
http://www.findajobinafrica.com/findajobinafrica
IT jobs Africa


retail pet store, entry and management, office warehouse
http://www.petco.com/petco_Page_PC_careeropportunities_Nav_5.aspx

IT jobs, engineering jobs, finance jobs, science jobs, human resources jobs and more
http://careers.caci.com

bank
https://www.wellsfargo.com/careers

lowes
https://careers.lowes.com/job_search.aspx

foot locker
http://www.footlocker-inc.com/careers.cfm?page=career-center

ATT
http://att.jobs/Default.aspx

mostly tech computer related
http://www.pdstech.com

Pitney Bowes - jobs mailroom to administrative office support www.pb.com
http://www.pb.com/careers/overview.shtml?__utma=1.184198675.1278876560.1278876560.1278876560.1&__utmb=1.1.10.1278876560&__utmc=1&__utmx=-&__utmz=1.1278876560.1.1.utmcsr=yahoo|utmccn=(organic)|utmcmd=organic|utmctr=pitney%20bowes%20career&__utmv=-&__utmk=96320028

overseas jobs non profit technical computer to project management, safety officer type jobs various positions and countries
NON PROFIT world jobs
http://www.reliefweb.int

Kmart
http://www.kmartcorp.com/careers/

general mostly Engineer related overseas etc.
http://www.amec.com/careers.htm

jc penney
http://www.jcpenney.net/careers/default.aspx

Boston market hourly to corporate positions
http://www.bostonmarket.com/jobs

Tiffany -hourly to corporate positions
https://www.tiffanycareers.com/home

Analyst, engineer , general etc..different states and overseas
http://www.gdit.com/default.aspx or http://www.resumeware.net/gdns_rw/gdns_web/job_list.cfm

Technical and management support agency various locations
https://jobs.aecom.com/1033/ASP/TG/cim_advsearch.asp?partnerid=20052&siteid=5022

Aviation jobs, mechanic, installer, aero
http://www.jsfirm.com

general job search different states
www.Nationjob.com

LOREAL
http://www.loreal.com/_en/_ww/html/careers/Meet-us/Apply/Apply-now.aspx
Bulgari
http://careers.bulgari.com/en/
P&G
http://www.pg.com/en_US/careers/index.shtml



DYNACORP
http://www.dyn-intl.com/careers.aspx

Red Lobster
[url]http://www.redlobster.com/employment/[/url]
props to [COLOR="Red"][B]Philly Philly[/B][/COLOR] he posted more below this page 1`
[B][U][COLOR="Red"]every state[/COLOR][/U][/B] is represented look carefully
[url]http://www.job-hunt.org/jobs/states.shtml[/url]


NORTH Carolina
[url]http://xecompany.hrmdirect.com/employment/openings.php[/url]

OVERALL INTERNET JOB LINKS 10 LINKS
[url]http://www.lifehack.org/articles/money/10-job-listing-sites-with-unique-opportunities.html[/url]

Originally Posted by [B][COLOR="DarkRed"]phillyphilly [/COLOR][/B]
State Employment Sites:
[url]http://www.statelocalgov.net/50states-jobs.cfm[/url]

[B]Update 6/20/2010[/B] can be used continuously because most of these sites regularly update their job search boards

Engineer related
[url]http://www.globalenergyjobs.com/central.nsf/MainHome[/url]

non profit related jobs
[url]http://www.nonprofit-jobs.org/[/url]

Retail jobs
[url]http://www.allretailjobs.com/[/url]


IT TECH RELATED JOBS
[url]http://www.iitjobs.com/[/url]

POLICY RELATED JOBS
[url]http://www.policyjobs.net/[/url]



HOSPITAL IN TEXAS hiring hospital related jobs
[url]http://www.giantcareers.com/[/url]

Kraft Foods
[url]http://www.kraftfoodscompany.com/careers/Pages/index.aspx[/url]

hotel Marriott
[url]www.marriott.com/careers/jobsearch.mi[/url]

different locations (states)maily in the south virgina, tx all kind of positions tech etc..administrative careers, tech jobs
[url]http://jobs.acsicorp.com/private/myjobs/searchjobsdone_outside.jsp?a=my3lt9m82zsh5nxiv1sdn7nrfgtew6u8104nl0w5u0ptvolpds0jqj43r67vwtg6[/url]

U.S. Government jobs different states most people know about this site. Just apply and see what happens might take months so apply to many as possible.
[url]http://www.usajobs.gov/[/url]

National Park position
[url]http://www.coolworks.com/national-park-jobs/[/url]

GAP retail corporate administrative positions and entry level few states like san francisco , ny chicago
[url]http://www.gapinc.com/public/Careers/car_jobsearch.shtml[/url]

coast guard
[url]http://www.uscg.mil/top/careers.asp[/url]

different states non profit and various
[url]http://www.care.org/careers/index.asp[/url]

retail entry to high end administrative different states
[url]http://careers.bulgari.com/en/job_opportunities.htm[/url]

job search portal different states
[url]www.indeed.com[/url]

jobs worldwide
[url]http://unjobs.org/[/url]

careers in africa
[url]http://www.globalcareercompany.com/content/content_650.aspx[/url]

non profit jobs etc..
[url]http://www.catholiccharitiesdc.org/about/employment/EmploymentOpportunities.pdf[/url]

for young folks jobs training program and stipend
[url]www.yearup.org[/url]

GOOGLE is hiring tech related etc. different locations including overseas
[url]http://www.google.com/intl/eo/jobs/[/url]

different states and countries various position
[url]http://www.dowjones.com/careers.asp[/url]

HALLIBURTON is HIRING
[url]https://erecruiting.halliburton.jobs/sap/bc/webdynpro/sap/zhrrcf_a_unregemp_job_search_f?&sap-language=EN[/url]

social services jobs, counseling, social worker, administrative, sometimes computer techs
[url]http://socialservice.com/[/url]

NEIMAN AND MARCUS CORPORATE AND ENTRY LEVEL RETAIL different states(locations)

[url]https://genie.mynmg.com/OA_HTML/RF.jsp?function_id=17281&resp_id=23350&resp_appl_id=800&security_group_id=0&lang_code=US¶ms=Kr-bdt54dNfFXnNLoLNJc5lpPv1cc0-S5mIhQHNr.ZO7fteOs0WuVQy4h1KicBza&oas=Ha6KxFBcisFkuYDla76DAQ[/url]

hospital positons california
[url]http://www.emc.org/body-careers-healthcaresource.cfm?tag=fuseaction%EQ%search%2EjobList%AM%template%EQ%dsp%5Fjob%5Flist%2Ecfm%AM%cjobattr1%EQ%All[/url]

hospital positons. I did not check this one
[url]http://www.hospitaljobsonline.com/[/url]

go to google and search
[U]workforce dept of labor[/U] at your local unemployment insurance office.

social services, counseling,case managers, non profit jobs
[url]www.indeed[/url].

Hospital jobs different states
[url]http://hospital.jobs.topusajobs.com/[/url]

online forex brokerage company computer realted based in El Segundu California
[url]http://www.mbtrading.com/careers.aspx[/url]

IBFX online brokerage company in UTAH tech related
[url]http://www.ibfx.com/corporate/page/Interbank-FX-Careers.aspx[/url]

walmart various positions corporate to entry level to trucking to overseas positions
[url]http://walmartstores.com/careers/[/url]

CHARTER SCHOOL POSITIONS SCHOOL RELATED JOBS
[url]http://jobs.publiccharters.org/[/url]


TEACH ENGLISH ABROAD
[url]http://www.teflnewbie.com/tefl-for-the-non-standard-person/[/url]
this white dude post key information check his links on the right side of the page

ANALYST TYPE FINANCIAL POSITIONS
http://www.efinancialcareers.com/resumes/?_$ja=p&source=PS:Google:trading%20careers

jobs in AFRICA
[url]http://www.findajobinafrica.com/findajobinafrica/[/url]

radio shack including corporate
[url]http://www.jobsatradioshack.com/[/url]



KFC kentucky fried chicken corporate general manager positions
[url]http://www.kfc-jobs.com/jobgrp/Restaurant-General-Manager-Jobs/234/[/url]

top 10 careers that's stable to have
[url]http://abcnews.go.com/video/playerIndex?id=7875619[/url]

free classses
[B][url]http://www.khanacademy.org/[/url][/B]


also with senior population is growing [B]nurses aid[/B] careers are hiring check your local area for certificates and job requirement. please understand that you are working with the elderly so be kind patient and sensitive respect their property and it's not a glamorous job but lots of jobs an overtime.

[B]security guard[/B] position hire a lot too. just get your certificate easy to get the more certificate the hire the pay. 8hr, certificate, 16hour certificate, is like the minimum entry


[B][U]Air guard and national guard and airforce reserve[/U][/B]
[url]http://www.afrc.af.mil/[/url]
[url]http://www.goang.com/Calendar/[/url]
[url]http://www.nationalguard.com/car?kw=national+guard[/url]

[B][U][COLOR="Red"]urban entrepreneurs blogs[/COLOR][/U][/B][B][/B]
[url]www.riseandgrind.com[/url]
[url]www.dreamandhustle.com/[/url][/QUOTE]

http://under30ceo.com/
Peace corps
http://www.peacecorps.gov/

AMTRAK IS HIRING - PASS IT ON!!! EXCELLENT OPPORTUNITY THAT DOES NOT REQUIRE A DEGREE! * PASS-ON TO SOMEONE WHO CAN USE THIS! *
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Great jobs for young men who aren't in college and strong young women also! This is Obama money for "infrastructure" the jobs are located all over, paid training in Atlanta . This is an awesome opportunity, please pass this on. These jobs pay good wages.
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Training: You will attend two or three weeks of training at the Railroad Education & Development Institute in Atlanta , GA. CSX will pay for travel, lodging and meals as required by collective bargaining agreement.
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Track Worker-030702 Job Summary: Work as a member of a crew to install new railroad track, maintain existing track and right-of-way. Replace or repair track switches with specific components. Slide and align tie plates. Drill holes through rails for insertion of bolts and tighten or loosen bolts at joints that hold ends or rails together. Correct deviations in track surface, alignment and gauge
Cut rails to specific lengths etc.
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Pay Rate Entry Rate $19.36/hour Full Rate $21.52/hour Promotional/ Advancement Opportunities:
Under Maintenance of Way Collective Bargaining Agreement, Track Workers may be considered for advancement
or promotion to other positions within the Engineering Department if qualified.
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Machine Operator $23.25 - $24.81/hour
Welder Helper $21.93/hour
Bridge Tender $21.93/hour
Bridge Mechanic $22.65/hour
Foreman $22.71 - $25.53/hour
Track Inspector $23.98 - $25.14/hour
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Qualifications: High School diploma/GED; 18 years of age or older; Valid Driver's License
*
At CSX, two of the company's core values are People Make The Difference and Safety Is A Way of Life. We are committed
to offering our team members the most competitive compensation and benefits package available, unlimited opportunities
for development and growth throughout an exciting and rewarding career, and the safest work environment possible.
CSX is an Equal Opportunity / Affirmative Action Employer that supports diversity in the workplace.
*
*Apply online to this and other positions: http://www.csx.com/?fuseaction=careers.mainf

Five Best Rewards Credit Cards

Five Best Rewards Credit Cards




Discover

Though not as widely accepted as the other major credit cards, Discover (specifically the Discover More Card) offers one of the most generous cash back rates: 5% on categories that change every month or few months and 1% on all other purchases. You'll have to check the 5% bonus calendar to see which are the highest cash back categories, and there are sometimes spending caps, as reader l337_7r4d3r mentioned, Discover sometimes offers great unique promotions/rewards. Also, you don't have to wait a year to redeem your rewards — you can redeem for cash or credit starting at $50 or for merchandise, gift cards, and other options starting at $20. (Tip: Discover sometimes offers a 0% lifetime APR for balance transfers; if that offer ever comes your way and if you're carrying debt elsewhere, you can save thousands in interest charges with Discover.)

American Express Blue Cash

Like the Discover More card, the American Express Blue Cash credit card offers up to 5% cash back on specific categories. The categories don't change, though — you earn up to 5% back on gas, grocery, and drug store (or "everyday purchases") specifically, and a relatively generous 1.25% cash back on all other purchases. But before you can reach these cash back rates, you'll need to charge at least $6,500 on your Blue Cash card each year (the Blue Cash year starts on your card issue date); until you do so you'll get 1% for everyday purchases and 0.5% for everything else. The reward comes in the form of a credit on your statement the month after your Card anniversary date. (Tip: Play with the Blue Cash calculator to see your cash back potential with Amex Blue Cash and compare with other options.)

Chase Freedom

The Chase Freedom Card also offers up to 5% cash back on spending, depending on your types of purchases. Chase offers both a Visa or MasterCard Freedom option, which makes it more universally accepted than all of the other cards here (besides the Amazon.com Rewards Visa below). The 5% cash back categories change quarterly and require you to enroll — which really only requires clicking on a couple of links — to get the high cash back bonus; all other purchases earn 1% cash back. Rewards are earned as points and can be redeemed for a check, gift card, or merchandise as soon as you have enough points (2,000 points for $20, for example). If you're a Chase banking customer, you can also earn additional points more quickly.


Amazon.com Rewards Visa

Another Chase rewards credit card, the Amazon.com Rewards Visa, as you can imagine, rewards users for buying things from Amazon. You've probably already seen the $30 sign-up savings offer when checking out at Amazon. Every dollar you spend on eligible Amazon purchases gives you 3 points (i.e., 3% cash back in the 100 points = 1% cash back scheme). Pay for your gas, restaurant dining, or drugstore purchases with the card and you'll get 2 points. Everywhere else, you'll earn 1 point. You can redeem your points for cash back once you have 2,500 points (if you only use your card for Amazon purchases, that's $833.33).


Costco American Express TrueEarnings Card



Many people with financial smarts are Costco members; they shop there to get more value for their money. It's no surprise, then, that the Costco American Express card—which offers cash back for virtually every purchase—comes highly recommended for people who want to get more benefits from their credit card. Costco members, specifically, benefit from this program: there's no annual fee for Costco members, you get cash back (1%) on your Costco purchases, and the single card serves as both an American Express card and your Costco membership card. You'll also get higher cash back for spending in specific categories: 2% for travel, 3% for restaurants, and 3% for gas purchases. All other spending earns 1% cash back. The reward comes in the form of an annual cash rebate coupon, redeemable at Costco for cash or merchandise.





Also, as mentioned previously, rewards credit cards benefit you the most if you use the credit wisely — by paying off the balance each month. You don't want to end up spending more on fees or interest charges than benefiting from the rewards. None of the five cards below charge an annual fee (the Costco Amex requires a paid Costco membership, however). It's also interesting to note that the cards most voted for all offer rewards as a percent cash back (rather than miles) and don't limit the amount of cash back you can earn.

More @ http://lifehacker.com/#!5765094/five-best-rewards-credit-cards

Spyware on cell phone

Spyware on cell phone


When using a cellular phone in today’s day and age, it is not always safe. Your personal information, conversations, and text messages could be hacked into by other people. Spyware on a cell phone is so common just about anyone with an Internet connection can access and download it. The best way to protect yourself is to know the signs of how to tell if spyware is on your cell phone. We will start this by explaining exactly how cell phone spyware works.

# What is spyware for cell phones and how is it so easily accessible to anyone? Spyware for cell phones is so easy to get, and so professionally engineered that it is really scary to be using a cell phone in today’s day and age without knowing if someone is now aware of everything you say, text and do.

Spyware is software which can be activated within your cell phone simply with a regular file text message, or picture message. Upon receiving, if the person opens the text message the software is then instantly put onto the cell phone allowing the sender to receive all conversations and text on your cell phone. Also now that cell phones come with a form of G.P.S., people can access where you are and where you go as long as you have your cell phone with you.

# How to tell if a spyware software is on your cell phone? The first way to tell if there is spyware program on your cell phone is to know whether anyone in your family is suspicious about your away from home activities. Do these people ever send you strange messages? Or maybe you have received strange texts from people you have never actually met in your lifetime. If so you may already have spyware fishing information off your cell phone activity.

Another way to identify if spyware could be on your cell phone is through strange cell phone activity itself. Spyware will make your cell phone do some or all of the following:

* Strange noise in the background of your conversations. Some of these strange noises are clicking, Echo of people's voices either your own or the person you are speaking with. Noise similar to white noise in your mobile phone, along with any other suspicious sounds which neither you nor the person you are speaking with is causing.



# Cell phones working on their own. A cell phone with spyware can sometimes light up on its own when no one is using it, make noises like you are receiving text messages or phone calls when no one was actually contacting you, along with strange phone calls where no one is on the other line and no one is hanging up.
# Other miscellaneous spyware signs would be on your cell phone bill. You will receive text message charges for double to triple the amount of texts and calls you have actually made. This is due to your cell phone, when containing spyware, sending back out your text messages to 3rd party numbers and websites which have put the spyware onto your cell phone.

BlackBerry spyware is an ever increasing problem. As the BB continues to gain popularity, people will continue to find ways to spy on a it using either cell phone spyware or a spy app. The good news is that detecting and removing these apps are a lot easier than most people think.

Here are a few detection tips.

* Have you recently let your cell out of your sight? It only takes a few minutes to install BlackBerry spyware. If you've recently let someone borrow your phone to make a quick call or download a game, then they could have actually installed spyware on your phone.
* Is your cell phone bill's data fee higher than normal? In order to transmit the logs that are recorded on your BB, the spyware needs to use your data connection (GPRS, 3G, etc) in order to upload the logs to a remote server. If you notice that your data usage fee and traffic are higher than usual, this is a sure sign you might have a BlackBerry spyware on your phone.
* Is that an echo? There are a few BlackBerry spyware programs that gives someone the ability to "tap" your live calls. When your call is tapped, sometimes you will be able to hear a slight echo or even a "click" that in most cases you might ignore. Sometimes its hard to distinguish this from general network or phone issues, but if you start to hear it more often than you perhaps did in the past, this could be a definite sign you have a one of these apps installed on your phone.

If some (or all) of these warning signs sound familiar to you, then I HIGHLY RECOMMEND taking action on either of the BlackBerry spyware removal tips below.

BLACKBERRY SPYWARE REMOVAL TIPS

1) Take your BlackBerry to your service center & wipe your phone clean. The best way to eradicate your BlackBerry from spyware, is to take the BlackBerry to your service provider and tell them you suspect someone has installed a BlackBerry spy app, so you want them to reinstall the OS. By doing this, any spy app on your BlackBerry will be completely wiped from your phone.

2) Take matter into your own hands and remove it yourself. It's not hard. You can easily remove the BlackBerry spy app yourself by downloading a FREE application called KISSES. This BlackBerry app will do a quick scan to verify that you indeed have a BlackBerry spy app on your phone, then will proceed to remove it.

Remember, it only takes a few minutes to get a BlackBerry spyware on your phone. If you think there is even the slightest chance someone has installed a spy app on your BlackBerry, don't wait to get it removed.

For more information on spy phone software, including more info on the detection and removal of BlackBerry spy apps, check out the #1 spy phone resource site. You can also follow me on Twitter @spyphoneguy

It connects you to the world, but your cell phone could also be giving anyone from your boss to your wife a window into your every move. The same technology that lets you stay in touch on-the-go can now let others tap into your private world — without you ever even suspecting something is awry.

The new generation

Long gone are the days of simple wiretapping, when the worst your phone could do was let someone listen in to your conversations. The new generation of cell phone spying tools provides a lot more power.

Eavesdropping is easy. All it takes is a two-minute software install and someone can record your calls and monitor your text messages. They can even set up systems to be automatically alerted when you dial a certain number, then instantly patched into your conversation. Anyone who can perform a basic internet search can find the tools and figure out how to do it in no time.

But the scarier stuff is what your phone can do when you aren’t even using it. Let’s start with your location.

Simple surveillance

You don’t have to plant a CIA-style bug to conduct surveillance any more. A service called World Tracker lets you use data from cell phone towers and GPS systems to pinpoint anyone’s exact whereabouts, any time — as long as they’ve got their phone on them.

All you have to do is log on to the web site and enter the target phone number. The site sends a single text message to the phone that requires one response for confirmation. Once the response is sent, you are locked in to their location and can track them step-by-step. The response is only required the first time the phone is contacted, so you can imagine how easily it could be handled without the phone’s owner even knowing.

Once connected, the service shows you the exact location of the phone by the minute, conveniently pinpointed on a Google Map. So far, the service is only available in the UK, but the company has indicated plans to expand its service to other countries soon.

Advanced eavesdropping

So you’ve figured out where someone is, but now you want to know what they’re actually doing. Turns out you can listen in, even if they aren’t talking on their phone.

Dozens of programs are available that’ll turn any cell phone into a high-tech, long-range listening device. And the scariest part? They run virtually undetectable to the average eye.

Take, for example, Flexispy. The service promises to let you “catch cheating wives or cheating husbands” and even “bug meeting rooms.” Its tools use a phone’s microphone to let you hear essentially any conversations within earshot. Once the program is installed, all you have to do is dial a number to tap into the phone’s mic and hear everything going on. The phone won’t even ring, and its owner will have no idea you are virtually there at his side.

Recover deleted text messages (SMS) and last dialed numbers from any SIM cards and smart cards

Did you know that with the help of a simple, inexpensive device, anyone with access to your phone could read your private text messages (SMS), even if you have deleted them previously? This device can even recover contacts and a good number or previously dialed numbers.

Legal loopholes

You might be asking how this could possibly be legal. Turns out, it isn’t – at least, not in the ways we just described. Much like those fancy smoking devices designed “for tobacco use only,” the software itself gets by because of a disclaimer saying it doesn’t endorse any illegal use.

I did a little digging with our friends from Flexispy. You won’t find it on the flashy front page, but buried a bit further in the site, the company says you’re fine to use their program only “on a phone that you own, for protecting your children,” or for purposes like “archiving data.” It’s a bit of a contrast from the bold suggestions of “uncover[ing] employee espionage,” “catch[ing] cheating husbands,” and “bug[ging] meeting rooms” that fill the company’s materials. After a little more explanation, their answer as to the legality of the service ends with a broad statement: “Please consult a qualified lawyer in your country for the correct answer to this question.”

Let me make it easier for you: Once you get into listening in to private conversations without either party’s consent, you’re treading rough water that could sweep you straight into jail. Whether it’s an employee or a spouse on the receiving end of your mission, neither federal nor state privacy laws take violations lightly in America. Getting caught could cost you several years behind bars, among other serious penalties.

Detecting and protecting

Finding spyware on your phone isn’t easy. There are dozens of bug detectors available from surveillance companies, but the only true fix is taking your phone to your provider and having them wipe it out altogether. That will restore the factory settings and clear out any hidden software that’s running on your phone.

Security experts say there may be some subtle signs your phone is invaded:

* You seem to have trouble shutting it off, or it stays lit up after you’ve powered down.
* The phone sometimes lights up when you aren’t making or receiving a call, or using any other function.
* You regularly hear odd background noises or clicks when you’re on the phone.

Unfortunately, there isn’t much you can do to safeguard your cell just yet. I’m sure it’s only a matter of time until we see McAfee-style programs to firewall your phone and keep intruders out. For now, though, the only sure-fire form of protection is to keep a close guard on your phone. Don’t accept Bluetooth connections unless you know what they are. Most important, make sure no one has access to install something when you aren’t watching. Otherwise, they may soon be watching you when you least expect it.

WHAT IS FLEXISPY
FlexiSPY is software that you install on a mobile phone. After installation, FlexiSPY secretly records events that happen on the phone and delivers this information to a web account, where you can view these reports (movie) 24x7 from any Internet enabled computer or mobile phone. FlexiSPY PRO-X also allows you to listen to the surroundings of the target mobile , listen to the phone conversation and to know the location of the device. To understand more, check out the FlexiSPY flash movie .

WHAT INFORMATION IS RECORDED
FlexiSPY PRO-X captures the contents of all SMS and email messages, the details of phone call records (number, time, duration) and the name assigned to the number in the phones address book. If you have a GPS phone such as an N95 then you can also receive the GPS coordinates. If you don't have GPS, then you can choose to receive the cell name and cell id. Find out more about mobile gps and cell id location tracking. Watch the Location Tracking Flash movie

WHAT IS A SPYCALL
A spycall is the ability to secretly switch on the target mobile microphone by making a call from a predefined number. SPYCALL lets you listen in to the phone surroundings from anywhere in the world. Leave in meeting rooms to eavesdrop conversations, be alert for a baby crying in her bedroom, or listen to what your spouse is really saying about you, the possibilities are down to your own imagination. Spycall Flash Movie

WHAT IS CALL INTERCEPTION
Call Interception is the ability to listen in to an active phone call on the target device. You specify the numbers you are interested in and when any calls to or from these numbers occur on the target, FlexiSPY PRO-X will send a secret SMS to your mobile. If you now call the target mobile, you will be added to the call. Interception requires that the target device support conference call. Call Interception Flash movie

WHAT IS SIM CHANGE NOTIFICATION
If someone try's to cover their tracks by changing the SIM card in the target phone, the phone number will change and you wont know what number to call to make a spycall. To deal with this situation, FlexiSPY PRO-X offers SIM change notification so that you will receive a SMS if the SIM card changes. Now you know the new number and can continue to make spycalls.

WHY IS THE PRICE FOR 12 MONTHS ONLY
Our customers tell us that they change phones frequently, and did not like products that were tied to one specific device only. With FlexiSPY you can protect your investment because it lets you move the software to any other supported phone for one year. During this period. we also provide a web account, support by phone, instant messaging and email.

WHAT PHONES ARE SUPPORTED
FlexiSPY products are only available for Series 60, Blackberry, iPhone and Windows mobile devices. You can find a full list of phones here. If the phone is not here, then we cannot support it. See the what phones does FlexiSPY work with flash movie

What if an ex-boyfriend or coworker could stalk you and monitor your conversations using your own cell phone? Sound impossible? It' actually quite easy using a plethora of spyware programs that can be downloaded directly to your cell phone. It can cost as little as $15.00 and stalkers can track your location by GPS and even listen in on your conversations. Worse still, some programs allow the stalker to activate the phone without your knowledge and not only listen to any conversations going on in the vicinity they can also use the camera and video features.

Imagine such software in the hands of a possessive and abusive boy friend or former boyfriend. With such a tool they could follow your every movement and listen in on everything you do. Most of us carry our phones with us everyday. They are rarely out of arms length. That's what makes this technology so dangerous to our privacy.

So what can you do to protect yourself? First, never leave your cell phone out where someone can access it. If you have left an abusive relationship, get a new phone and change your number. When using your phone be aware of any ambient noise that shouldn't be there (like traffic sounds when you are in your room). This is a good indicator that someone is on your line. If an ex-boyfriend knows things about your schedule or conversations you've had with friends you should have your phone searched for spyware.

If you think your phone is being monitored contact the police immediately (although use an alternate phone) and stop using it. Save any messages from your stalker for the police to use as evidence. Never engage the stalker, this may just embolden them and lead to an escalation in their activity.

People can learn all about your private life through your cell phone, and one woman said she was stalked for three years because of it. Susan, who asked that her real name be kept private because of worry over her safety, said her ex-boyfriend tormented her using only her cell phone to do it.

"He knew where I was all the time," Susan said. "If I was at dinner somewhere. He would text me and ask me how dinner was. I had no idea how he knew where I was."

Most people know that the GPS in a cell phone can track your every move, but that's just the beginning. Widely available software that can be installed on almost any cell phone can track not just your whereabouts but also your private conversations and personal information.

"I thought I was going crazy," Susan said. "It's just unnerving knowing that somebody 24/7 knows where you're at, what you're talking about, what's going on, everything about you."

At the time, Susan didn't know that her ex-boyfriend installed spying software on her phone when she wasn't looking. Once installed, he could be anywhere -- even in a different state -- and follow her every move.

But what was worse, it didn't just track her whereabouts. He could listen in on her phone calls, read her text messages and turn her personal cell phone into a bugging device. From anywhere, he could activate her speaker phone and listen to everything she was doing.

"He would text me, 'How was dinner? Was the date good?'" she recalled.

Susan's ex-boyfriend would also show up places where she was. She feared for her life and called the police, who put her in protective custody. When her ex-boyfriend violated the restraining order, he was put in jail on felony stalking charges.

"He had every intention of killing me," she said. "Within 20 minutes of getting out of jail, he was outside my hotel room."

Security expert Robert Siciliano says he gets countless e-mails from victims of cell phone spying.

"When somebody remotely activates your phone, you're not going to know it and they can use that phone to monitor the conversations in the room you're in," he said. "Your phone could be sitting next to you while you are watching TV, and somebody can actually log into your phone and can actually watch what you are watching on television."

What is Spyphone Software

Before proceeding with the spy phone analysis, lets define spyphone software. Many common terms describe Spy Phone Software, call interceptor, SMS interceptor, cell phone spy software, cellphone spy, mobile phone spy software, mobile spy, SMS spy, iPhone spy, BlackBerry spy, bluetooth spy software, cell phone tap, and many others.

Spyphone software is a an application that you install on a smartphone cell phone (lets call this the TARGET) that will enable you to do a number of things, such as:

1. See phone activity including what Voice Calls, SMS text messages and/or emails are sent or received from the target mobile.
2. Listen to the environment the target mobile is in by remotely activating the microphone.
3. Listen to telephone calls being made from or to the target mobile. Phone tapping.
4. See and track the location of the target handphone on a map using GPS location.
5. Record telephone calls.
6. Upload pictures and video from the target device.

The best systems include a web account that you can use to log-in and view files (SMS messages, emails, call activity logs) from anywhere you have an internet connection. Not all products have these different features, so you need to read the review or consult the spyphone features matrix to see which spyphone product meets your needs. There are very big differences between vendors. Be careful - don't believe everything you read in advertising of these products. Only a handful of vendors are reliable.
Is it hidden on the target phone?

For spyphones, discretion is the biggest part of valor

From real experience using spyphone software I can tell you that no matter what features a spyphone software product has, or how cheap it is, the spyphone software is worse than useless if the target user can notice it while using the phone for normal purposes. The spyphone software ability to remain hidden in all situations is of prime importance.

The consequences from getting caught installing spyphone software are potentially serious - you could ruin a perfectly good relationship, or even end up in court - so the most important thing to look for in spyphone software is its ability to remain undetectable, after all, it is supposed to be a SPY phone.
Mobile Spy

Mobilespy's Nokia product is visible in the application manager, where you would expect to find installed software, and can be removed like any other Nokia program. Not good! Mobilespy's Windows product fares a lot better, but it can be detected by following the instructions on their web site. This really makes no sense. Why would you tell the world how to catch your own customers? The Mobile Spy iPhone product only works on the new 3G iPhone and can be detected in the Cydia installer application used to install programs on jailbroken iPhones. Mobilespy does not have a BlackBerry product. Check out the Mobilespy vs FlexiSPY spy phone head to head review.
Neo-Call

Neo-Call's first approach to hiding its presence was better than MobileSpy, but was also very crude. It interfered with the Symbian native installer causing serious problems and suspicion when the user tries to install new software, or uninstall existing applications. While this sounds bad (and it is), from a stealth perspective, it was a better solution than Mobile Spy. With their latest versions of software they have decided not to hide the installation and it can easily be removed. Neo-Call doesn't have products for iPhone, Windows Mobile or BlackBerry. Check out the NeoCall vs FlexiSPY spyphone shootout.
FlexiSPY

FlexiSPY remains invisible on Nokia, Windows Mobile and BlackBerry with no indication at all of the installation; and it cannot be seen in the running applications or startup areas of Windows Mobile or Symbian operating systems. The FlexiSPY BlackBerry Spy product has two options. Simple and advanced. I selected the advanced option which required the BlackBerry device manager and a USB cable, and this resulted in a totally invisible install. FlexiSPY iPhone Spy product works on both 2G and 3G iPhones and has a really neat post installation routine that lets you jailbreak the iPhone, install and choose what state to leave the device. This means that an iPhone can be jailbroken, have the spyphone software installed and then returned to a state that makes it appear to have never been tampered with. Its little details like this that really inspires confidence that the FlexiSPY team really take privacy seriously.
Scamware

eStealth / Bluestealth / Ultimate Mobile Spy and others Like the terrible mythical monster called Hydra, who's multiple serpent heads would re-grow even if they were hacked off, eStealth's nest of Bluetooth spy phone scam-brands refuse to die, and continue to multiply like a virus in the wild. Outright lies on websites, refutation of basic consumer rights, rejection of support, illegal terms and conditions, no money back guarantee, limited usability are the hallmark of this scam-ware.

What else do you need to know? Oh yeah, using it requires the Target to accept it ( not likely! ). Question their claims: the person you are targeting will not suspect a thing. Guaranteed! (not true, but no refund available) This will work on all phones! (not according to the documentation supplied with the software).

CONCLUSION: FlexiSPY is the only product that is undetectable across all their entire product range. MobileSpy Windows Mobile is hidden, but not their iPhone or Nokia products. NeoCall is clearly visible and only works on Nokia-Symbian phones.
Who has the most Features

Unlike men, not all spyphone products are created equal

Following hot on the heels of the ability to remain hidden, the next most important feature is how the spyphone transmits data from the target device to the person who is actually doing the spying. There are two main ways of doing this. GPRS or SMS forwarding. The choice of technique, has a direct impact on costs and more importantly the likelihood of being detected by the target. Check out the section on spyphone costs to find out why SMS forwarding is much more expensive.

MobileSpy and FlexiSPY are GPRS based products and send data to a website where captured event data is stored. Neo-Call uses the much more expensive SMS method. Having decided on the data transmission technologies, you are now ready to examine what features are available on the spyphone product. The advertised list of features may look good, but these are rarely available on all phones. Before getting too excited, check to see what each spyphone software product can do on your mobile device. If you are in the USA for example, you will be more interested in BlackBerry and iPhone, as Symbian and Windows Mobile are niche players, while in Europe the situation is reversed. For example, only FlexiSPY cover Blackberry and 2G iPhones, so if you have these devices, FlexiSPY is your only option. Neo-Call list Japanese specific devices, which neither FlexiSPY or MobileSpy do, so if you are in Japan, NeoCall is your only choice.

FlexiSPY is available in three versions - FlexiSPY LIGHT, FlexiSPY PRO and FlexiSPY PRO-X. FlexiSPY PRO-X is the flagship product with the greatest number of features of all the spyphone software products I reviewed. The PRO-X version has SMS, call logging, and GPS location tracking that is viewable on a map inside your web account. It also has Call Interception, which lets you listen to phone calls made from or to the target device, and spycall for listening to the surroundings of the target device. FlexiSPY PRO is identical to FlexiSPY PRO-X, but without call interception, while FlexiSPY LIGHT has everything except spycall and call intercept.

Neo-Call has similar features to FlexiSPY, except its spyphone software is supplied as stand-alone modules. Apart from the delivery technology( it uses SMS compared to GPRS) , Neo-Call lacks visual GPS mapping, and the contact name of SMS/text messages or voice calls is not provided. The limitation of Neo-Call's SMS system really becomes apparent when trying to read through and mentally organize hundreds of SMS on the monitoring device. The web based system of Mobile Spy and FlexiSPY are so much easier to manage.

Mobile Spy comes in last with the least number of features. Mobile Spy only offers SMS/text messages and voice call records on the Symbian version, and SMS, call logs and Internet Explorer URLs on the Windows Mobile version. To put this into a decision making context, Mobile Spy is similar to FlexiSPY LIGHT, but without the email capture data provided on FlexiSPY Light.

For a full list of the features provided by each of the three suppliers of spyphone software please refer to the spyphone features matrix table.

CONCLUSION: FlexiSPY PRO-X has the greatest number of features and the Mobile Spy product offers the least. Mobile Spy is $50 less than the basic FlexiSPY LIGHT product, but also has less features such as no Email or Contact List information. FlexiSPY LIGHT provides an upgrade path to FlexiSPY's more powerful higher-end spyphone products.
Documentation

I pay you so I don't have to think!

Like most people, I hate to read manuals. I believe that products should be designed to be as intuitive as possible. Having used all the spyphone software on the market, I have come to realize that spyphones are an exception. They cost a lot of money, are used in a hostile environment, in 'mission-critical' situations, where there is no room for failure. For products this complex, there really is not way you can avoid doing some reading, so the documentation better be good.

So, before spending hundreds of dollars on a product that will be used in covert situations, I definitely want to make sure that I understand exactly what I'm buying. You may never get access to the target device again so you want to make sure that you get it right the first time, and that you can remotely change things later.

All three of the spyphone software suppliers reviewed here provide online documentation for their products. While online documentation is useful, sometimes you want to download a file or print it out to review while offline or at another location. Finding installation and support documentation for MobileSpy is easy. The company has a nicely designed website and the information is easily found and easy to follow, but there is no real attempt to educate the buyer. However, all of MobileSpy products are very basic, and unlike the others, there is not much to know.

On the other hand, FlexiSPY's website contains an incredible amount of information about its spyphone software products and how they work, as well as Flash video files showing how to install the software, and screen shots showing what the captured data looks like. In addition, FlexiSPY also has comprehensive step-by-step installation manuals for each of the operating systems its spyphone software operates on that users can download for offline review. This may be explained by the fact that they cover so many more models and have more features than the others, or may be just due to the fact that FlexiSPY has been around longer and has a better appreciation of what spyphone software purchasers want and need.

Neo-Call's website really is a disaster with only a limited amount of information available online which is made more confusing due to its product being sold as individual modules which are then combined on Symbian 9 target handphones only. It also has a downloadable PDF file of the remote control commands and the user guide, however during the evaluation process I was unable to get the PDF files to download.

CONCLUSION: Mobile Spy's documentation is sufficient as their product is very basic, but is more focused on selling than educating. FlexiSPY's documentation, from their website, manuals, flash movies do an intense job of educating the user and explaining how things work, almost to the point of overkill. For example, their Nokia product manual is a 23 page all-color tome that would choke a horse! Neo-Call is a waste of web space, with no information whatsoever.
Installation

A race against time

The next thing that is important when selecting spyphone software is the ease of installation. Here is why.

All the spyphone software reviewed here requires you to have the target device in your hands for a period of time. You cannot install spyphone software remotely, and getting hold of someone's mobile can be difficult. Therefore the quicker the install, the better.

Both MobileSpy and FlexiSPY's WM and Symbian spyphone software products are pretty good in this regard. Both are downloaded directly from the internet on to the target mobile, so you don't need a cable or computer, and most people should be able to install either of these spyphone products in less than 10 minutes. The difference with FlexiSPY is that the download URL is simple, consisting of five characters, whereas MobileSpy is over 30 characters long, making it very frustrating to enter on a mobile keypad. It may not sound a lot, but when you have only five minutes to install the application, you don't want to spend 10 minutes trying to get the URL correct.

Neo-Call's product on the other hand not only requires a computer, but also requires that you know the serial number (IMEI) of the target device before purchasing and downloading the software to your PC. Using serial number based products is a major problem for the average James Bond, and this is a major flaw in Neo-Call's spyphone software offering.

As a bonus FlexiSPY has a licensing system that allows you to transfer the activation code onto other handphones unlimited times during the subscription period. You may find this ability to change phones useful as it lets you use the software on several devices over the period of the license.

CONCLUSION: Both MobileSpy and FlexiSPY offer an easy download direct from the internet for their Windows Mobile and Symbian products. Neo-Call and Mobile Spy's iPhone spyphone software involves a much more complex method and is for tech-savvy users only, while FlexiSPY iPhone install is simple.
Road Test

I am easily satisfied with the very best

It's at this point that differences between true spyphone software and simple backup software emerges and the old adage that you get what you pay for comes into play. here is the bottom line. You need to decide if you want a real spyphone, or if something similar will suffice. I can tell you that credible spyphone software should be undetectable, reliable, powerful, and controllable, with all the features that you need to get the job done. Reading SMS/text messages is one thing, but information is power and being able to see locations and listen to phone calls lifts your abilities to another level. Lets look at some of the features that a real spyphone should have.

Neo-Call and FlexiSPY both allow the microphone of the target handphone to be activated by the monitor handphone, enabling the environment around the phone to be monitored in a similar way to an open intercom connection. One difference being that Neo-Call will allow the microphone of a 'powered off' handphone to be activated, while FlexiSPY only allows 'powered on' handphone microphones to be activated. FlexiSPY and Neo-Call also allow the monitor handphone to listen-in to voice calls made from or to the target handphone in much the same way as party-lines in bygone days allowed everyone connected to a phone line to eavesdrop in on the calls of other people.

Balanced against this is the ability for FlexiSPY to access the target handphone's inbuilt address book and assign a name to the SMS/text messages and voice calls received to, or made from it. This makes viewing who has been contacted, or who is contacting the owner of the target handphone, considerably easier than just a list of telephone numbers as is the case with Neo-Call or Mobile Spy.

In addition to the above features, both Neo-Call and FlexiSPY allow GPS and the cell ID location of the target handphone to be logged. With FlexiSPY the enhanced features are supplied in a single, tightly integrated package, while with Neo-Call it is implemented as a series of individual modules that are combined on Symbian 9 handphones only at the time of installation.

Because of its tightly integrated package and ability to be installed on a wider range of handphones and different operating systems (e.g. Symbian 8 and 9, Blackberry, iPhone and WM), FlexiSPY comes out ahead of Neo-Call in this section.

While they look similar on paper, it's only when you use the products that the differences become clear. Testing on a Nokia N95M, showed that the Neo-Call product was very unstable, and the device would restart after about 90 seconds, as well as activate the the screen backlight if spycalls were terminated in less than 90 seconds. When the N95 was set in silent profile, the device would restart if the spycall was longer than 90 seconds. If the call was terminated inside this time, the entire display started flashing like a police light, which might be only a prelude to the real police lights you might end up seeing if the owner of the target handphone can figure out you are the one who installed the spyphone software on their handphone.

As previously mentioned, monitoring SMS/text messages and voice calls is the limit of Mobile Spy's capabilities. While its functionality is limited, it works well, except for one glaring problem. The Target device and the web account share the same password. If you ever charge the password for the web account, which you should do regularly, you stop receiving data, and the target device starts to choke up with data that it cant deliver. While this poor authentication may be sufficient for a product designed for data backup, its is a serious problem for a spyphone product.

CONCLUSION: FlexiSPY and Neo-Call appear similar on paper, but real-world testing shows Neo-Call's spyphone software products are seriously flawed and unstable. Mobile Spy's functionality is limited, inappropriate for spying applications, and there is no remote control, but it is at least stable. Considering that FlexiSPY is far cheaper than Neo-Call, I would recommend FlexiSPY if a credible, fully featured tool for serious spying is required.
Remote Control of Spyphone Software

Power is nothing without control

Any spyphone software worth its salt will provide the ability to control the software remotely. Why is this important' At some point you are going to want to stop and start the software, or change the settings. For example, if the target mobile has a pre-pay service or is roaming, you may need to remotely adjust the settings so as to not create large bills on the target handphone for example. You may also want to change the monitor handphone number, or change the list of phone calls you want to listen to.

Neo-Call and FlexiSPY provide full remote control using SMS commands to stop, start, and control everything needed to use their spyphone software to their full potential. With both FlexiSPY and Neo-Call these SMS commands are invisible to the target handphone owner. Neo-Call and FlexiSPY both provide a program that will run on any java equipped handphone to make the issuing of these commands a breeze. MobileSpy has no remote control options and once started cannot be stopped. This is a serious problem and as such cannot be recommended for any spy application.

CONCLUSION: Neo-Call and FlexiSPY provide great remote control and are serious spyphone products. MobileSpy does not allow any control and will certainly cause problems to the target so cannot be recommended.
Accessories

The sum of the whole is greater then the sum of its parts

Neo Call and FlexiSPY offer Call Interception and Spycall. Using these features however is a manual process. For interception, you wait to receive a notification of an incoming or outgoing call, and you then dial in to listen. This requires you to be constantly available. FlexiSPY offer a product called FlexiRECORD that pairs with any number of FlexiSPY targets and automatically intercepts the call and records it to a PC or to a Windows Mobile device. They also offer a product called Monitor Plus that allows you to access your web data and control your targets devices from a windows mobile phone, which is very convenient when you are on the move. Neo-Call and MobileSpy do not have any such options
Cost of ownership

Apart from the initial purchase price, the biggest cost is determined by the type of data transmission technology used. All the spyphone software that I reviewed places the cost of event reporting onto the target phone. The two ways that events are reported are:

By SMS from the target phone ( SMS Forwarding)

For every event the target phone sends an SMS to the spying party. This has the advantage of being immediate and simple, but it can get expensive and it is very easy to run up a huge bill on the target phone, particularly if this is happening internationally. This method is called SMS forwarding and is the only method used by Neo-Call and one of two methods available for FlexiSPY. SMS forwarding has some advantages, but costs can skyrocket and the SMS destination numbers are likely to be visible on most phone bills. Because of the nature of SMS delivery it's not possible for Neo-Call to offer any delivery options.

By Internet from the target phone (GPRS)

This requires the target cell phone to have GPRS, with the operating cost dependent on the amount of data and the frequency of connection. As the amount of data transmitted is relatively small, this is a very cost effective method and has the added advantage of not being detectable on the target handphone bill. Both FlexiSPY and Mobile Spy use this method, however a major problem with Mobile Spy is that there is no way to control the frequency of delivery reports, or to stop the delivery of reports. This means it is not possible to take any action to minimize GPRS traffic costs.

In this regard Mobile Spy is like a runaway train and just keeps going EVEN AFTER the contract period runs out.

FlexiSPY on the other hand has the ability to control report delivery by the number of events that are collected, and also by time between events. In this regard FlexiSPY's event delivery control is way ahead of Mobile Spy and lets you do things such as schedule delivery at frequencies ranging from one to 24 hour intervals, or for when a pre-defined number of events to report is reached. This flexibility means that you can set delivery for times when the target phone is unused, such as 4am, once a day. This minimizes data charges and preserves the battery life of the target device.

FlexiSPY also offers GPS data and map visualization. For its GPS and cell ID location reporting FlexiSPY can be instructed to capture the location every five, 10, 20, 40, or 60 minutes, with this choice able to be be changed at any time using the FlexiSPY control software on the monitor handphone. FlexiSPY also allows you to set different reporting options for different events.

For the majority of applications GPRS delivery is the way to go. It's cheaper and the delivery URLs are impossible to detect on a phone bill.

CONCLUSION: Data transmission costs using SMS can quickly surpass the spyphone software purchase cost. GPRS is the way to go, but only if you can control the delivery times. In this regard FlexiSPY clearly wins, with Mobile Spy following. Neo-Call's SMS delivery is for specialist use only.
Support

What does this mean, why is not working. Help Me!

When buying a complex and expensive product like spyphone software you need much higher levels of support before and after the sale than you do with other products. If you have limited access to the target handphone, or there is a lot at stake, you need to make sure you buy the right product and that it works as advertised. Before buying a complex product costing several hundred dollars, I think I have a right to expect support and timely communication with the seller.

MobileSpy and FlexiSPY both offer a live chat service, however, while FlexiSPY is 24-7 (Spanish, German and English) language , MobileSpy's was closed every time I tried over a four week period. Neo-Call not only don't have any live chat, they must have one of the most confusing websites I have ever seen.

FlexiSPY also provides telephone support from call centers in the USA, UK and Hong Kong, as well as phone call and IM support via Skype. Mobile Spy does not offer any telephone or IM support, while Neo-Call offer a telephone number in the Republic of San Marino only. All three spyphone software vendors also provide support via email.

During the evaluation process I had a number of questions that I just couldn't find the answers to on the different companies websites and tested their online support. Of seven attempts to contact MobileSpy I was unable to contact their online support representatives at all. Of a similar number of attempts to contact the FlexiSPY live chat support I was able to speak to an operator five times. Of the seven messages I sent to Retina-X Studios I never received a single response.

FlexiSPY website also contains an off-line support request form so that you can log a support question and receive an emailed reply later, as well as the ability to have unanswered live chat messages converted to text messages and sent as mail. Both of the two offline messages sent to FlexiSPY were answered within a few hours, while support questions sent to Neo-Call were answered in around 48-hours.

CONCLUSION: In today's environment, FlexiSPY's professionalism and willingness to support its products really shines, with all the support options available that you would expect. MobileSpy are far from sincere because they advertise live chat but it's never available, nor do emails get answered. When I called their American office during office hours the story was the same - no support. Neo-Call may as well not list any support options and is worse than useless. Considering that the prices for the equivalent spyphone software from the three vendors is similar I don't see why Mobile Spy and Neo-Call cannot deliver support.
Conclusion

Whatever the rights and wrongs of spying it is clear that the right tool for the job needs to be undetectable, reliable, remotely controllable, and provide listening, location as well as message capture capabilities.

FlexiSPY and Neo-Call offer all the features that you need to get the job done, but Neo-Call's choice of delivery technology and its instability means that it could only be considered for specialist applications where SMS forwarding. is the only choice. If all you need SMS/text message and call log backup software at the lowest possible price then Mobile Spy is worth considering. However its lack of voice call monitoring, the inability to turn the product off when not required, coupled with the constant sending of reports and the ease of discovery, means that it is really not suitable for spyphone use.

The requirement for Neo-Call to have to build a customized application for each cell phone, along with the protracted and awkward download and installation procedure means the target handphone needs to be accessible for a longer period of time than with either MobileSpy or FlexiSPY. But because Neo-Call also blocks access to the handphones native application installer it is likely that its use will be detected.

By any objective measure the most feature rich of all the three spyphone software applications I reviewed is FlexiSPY. The fact that even the basic version of FlexiSPY leaves no trace on the target handphone, along with the ability to tailor what events on the target handphone are recorded and the frequency that these reports are transmitted to the server, make it by far the leading spyphone software application of the three.

FlexiSPY's online and offline support, along with the installation videos, comprehensive documentation, and the fact that FlexiSPY Pro-X is less than half the price of Neo-Call make FlexiSPY a clear winner and the spyphone software to use where detection could be costly and/or embarrassing.

In general, if all you need is basic SMS/ Call Record snooping, and the consequences of being caught are low, and you don't need an upgrade path you could choose MobileSPY as its Windows Mobile and Symbian products are slightly cheaper than FlexiSPY. FlexiSPY iPhone spy phone software is however much cheaper and better than Mobilespy

If you need Call Interception, Spycalls, GPS, Email, Remote Control, a totally stealth product and the ability to upgrade to more powerful products, the choice is FlexiSPY. However, I feel its a false economy, as you could choose FlexiSPY light to get a superior product, and upgrade to the PRO or PROX at any point in the subscription period.

Neo Call is far too expensive, and its use of SMS forwarding for data delivery makes it unsuitable for most applications

Money

YouTube stars who made over $100,000

Provided by the Business Insider.


There are 10 independent YouTube stars who made over $100,000 in the past year, according to a study done by analytics and advertising company TubeMogul.

From July 2009 to July 2010, TubeMogul used their viewership data to estimate the annual income for independent YouTube partners, which they define as anyone who is not part of a media company or brand.

Here's how they got their estimates:

* Revenue only comes from banner ads served near content (we ignored pre-roll or overlay since we can't easily isolate by publisher).
* Since YouTube banner ads have a two-second load delay, we estimate 2.59% of viewers click away before an ad loads based on separate research.
* Ads were served near all videos that loaded (since there are partners, this is generally true).
* CPM for the banner ads was $1.50 (Google auctions a lot of this inventory off; we rounded this 2009 estimate down to be conservative).
* YouTube is splitting ad revenue with partners 50-50.

Basically, take their views from the past year, assume a few don't stick around long enough for an ad to load, divide that number by 1,000, multiply by $1.50 and divide that number in half.

Conservative estimates? Sure. But with that math, you get a pretty decent estimate of how much these YouTube celebrities are making from just the banner ads on their channel. So, without further ado, here are the highest earning YouTube stars!


1. Shane Dawson – $315,000

Shane Dawson is so popular that he is three different YouTube channels. His most popular channel consists of his comedy skits and music video parodies. Dawson created a second channel as a vlog and for a separate series called "Ask Shane," and his third channel only has videos taken from his iPhone.

July 2009 - 2010 Views: 431,787,450


2. The Annoying Orange – $288,000

The Annoying Orange is a comedy web series that takes place in a kitchen and is about talking fruit. Dane Boedigheimer is the mastermind behind the series and is also the voice of Orange.

July 2009 - 2010 Views: 349,753,047


3. Philip DeFranco – $181,000

Philip DeFranco uploads a new video onto YouTube every Monday to Thursday for his show – The Philip DeFranco Show. His video blogging topics range from politics to pop culture.

July 2009 - 2010 Views: 248,735,032


4. Ryan Higa – $151,000

Ryan Higa makes comedy skits and is a video blogger who turned into a viral star with his "How to be Gangster" and "How to be Ninja" videos. Even though he doesn't upload as many videos as his fellow YouTube celebrities, Higa is still the top dog at YouTube with over 2.6 million subscribers.

July 2009 - 2010 Views: 206,979,909


5. Fred – $146,000

Lucas Cruikshank plays "a lonely six year old named Fred" who uses his mom's video camera and posts videos on a YouTube channel. As the second most subscribed to YouTube channel, Lucas Cruikshank's immensely popular Fred character even has a movie coming out backed by Nickelodeon.

July 2009 - 2010 Views: 200,656,150


6. Shay Carl – $140,000

As a radio DJ, Shay Carl started making comedy skits and put them on YouTube for the world to see. He claims to have held 20 different jobs before settling down with his DJ and YouTube gigs.

July 2009 - 2010 Views: 192,309,247


7. Mediocre Films – $116,000

Greg Benson created Mediocre Films initially for a sketchy comedy TV series called "Skip TV." The show lasted for one season, and now Benson makes low budget comedy videos for the web.

July 2009 - 2010 Views: 159,030,703


8. Smosh – $113,000

Smosh is the comedy duo of Ian Hecox and Anthony Padilla, and with over 1.7 million subscribers, they make up the 5th most popular channel on YouTube. They first shot to viral fame with their "Pokemon Theme Music Video" which became YouTube's most viewed video in Spring 2006. However, due to copyright reasons, the original video was removed from YouTube.

July 2009 - 2010 Views: 154,936,876


9. The Young Turks – $112,000

The Young Turks is a political talk show that also airs on Sirius Satellite Radio. Founded and hosted by Cenk Uygur, The Young Turks talk show and their vast viewership has proven that the Internet can be a viable broadcast platform.
July 2009 - 2010 Views: 153,807,362


10. Natalie Tran– $101,000

Under the user name of communitychannel, Natalie Tran is the most subscribed to YouTube user in Australia. Like most others on this list, she is a video blogger and occasionally uploads comedy skits.

July 2009 - 2010 Views: 138,871,829


More @ http://finance.yahoo.com/tech-ticker/meet-the-youtube-stars-making-100000-plus-per-year-535349.html?tickers=goog,^ixic,qqqq

Africa

100 things that you did not know about Africa


1. The human race is of African origin. The oldest known skeletal remains of anatomically modern humans (or homo sapiens) were excavated at sites in East Africa. Human remains were discovered at Omo in Ethiopia that were dated at 195,000 years old, the oldest known in the world.

2. Skeletons of pre-humans have been found in Africa that date back between 4 and 5 million years. The oldest known ancestral type of humanity is thought to have been the australopithecus ramidus, who lived at least 4.4 million years ago.

3. Africans were the first to organise fishing expeditions 90,000 years ago. At Katanda, a region in northeastern Zaïre (now Congo), was recovered a finely wrought series of harpoon points, all elaborately polished and barbed. Also uncovered was a tool, equally well crafted, believed to be a dagger. The discoveries suggested the existence of an early aquatic or fishing based culture.

4. Africans were the first to engage in mining 43,000 years ago. In 1964 a hematite mine was found in Swaziland at Bomvu Ridge in the Ngwenya mountain range. Ultimately 300,000 artefacts were recovered including thousands of stone-made mining tools. Adrian Boshier, one of the archaeologists on the site, dated the mine to a staggering 43,200 years old.

5. Africans pioneered basic arithmetic 25,000 years ago. The Ishango bone is a tool handle with notches carved into it found in the Ishango region of Zaïre (now called Congo) near Lake Edward. The bone tool was originally thought to have been over 8,000 years old, but a more sensitive recent dating has given dates of 25,000 years old. On the tool are 3 rows of notches. Row 1 shows three notches carved next to six, four carved next to eight, ten carved next to two fives and finally a seven. The 3 and 6, 4 and 8, and 10 and 5, represent the process of doubling. Row 2 shows eleven notches carved next to twenty-one notches, and nineteen notches carved next to nine notches. This represents 10 + 1, 20 + 1, 20 - 1 and 10 - 1. Finally, Row 3 shows eleven notches, thirteen notches, seventeen notches and nineteen notches. 11, 13, 17 and 19 are the prime numbers between 10 and 20.

6. Africans cultivated crops 12,000 years ago, the first known advances in agriculture. Professor Fred Wendorf discovered that people in Egypt’s Western Desert cultivated crops of barley, capers, chick-peas, dates, legumes, lentils and wheat. Their ancient tools were also recovered. There were grindstones, milling stones, cutting blades, hide scrapers, engraving burins, and mortars and pestles.

7. Africans mummified their dead 9,000 years ago. A mummified infant was found under the Uan Muhuggiag rock shelter in south western Libya. The infant was buried in the foetal position and was mummified using a very sophisticated technique that must have taken hundreds of years to evolve. The technique predates the earliest mummies known in Ancient Egypt by at least 1,000 years. Carbon dating is controversial but the mummy may date from 7438 (±220) BC.

8. Africans carved the world’s first colossal sculpture 7,000 or more years ago. The Great Sphinx of Giza was fashioned with the head of a man combined with the body of a lion. A key and important question raised by this monument was: How old is it? In October 1991 Professor Robert Schoch, a geologist from Boston University, demonstrated that the Sphinx was sculpted between 5000 BC and 7000 BC, dates that he considered conservative.

9. On the 1 March 1979, the New York Times carried an article on its front page also page sixteen that was entitled Nubian Monarchy called Oldest. In this article we were assured that: “Evidence of the oldest recognizable monarchy in human history, preceding the rise of the earliest Egyptian kings by several generations, has been discovered in artifacts from ancient Nubia” (i.e. the territory of the northern Sudan and the southern portion of modern Egypt.)

10. The ancient Egyptians had the same type of tropically adapted skeletal proportions as modern Black Africans. A 2003 paper appeared in American Journal of Physical Anthropology by Dr Sonia Zakrzewski entitled Variation in Ancient Egyptian Stature and Body Proportions where she states that: “The raw values in Table 6 suggest that Egyptians had the ‘super-Negroid’ body plan described by Robins (1983). The values for the brachial and crural indices show that the distal segments of each limb are longer relative to the proximal segments than in many ‘African’ populations.”

11. The ancient Egyptians had Afro combs. One writer tells us that the Egyptians “manufactured a very striking range of combs in ivory: the shape of these is distinctly African and is like the combs used even today by Africans and those of African descent.”

12. The Funerary Complex in the ancient Egyptian city of Saqqara is the oldest building that tourists regularly visit today. An outer wall, now mostly in ruins, surrounded the whole structure. Through the entrance are a series of columns, the first stone-built columns known to historians. The North House also has ornamental columns built into the walls that have papyrus-like capitals. Also inside the complex is the Ceremonial Court, made of limestone blocks that have been quarried and then shaped. In the centre of the complex is the Step Pyramid, the first of 90 Egyptian pyramids.

13. The first Great Pyramid of Giza, the most extraordinary building in history, was a staggering 481 feet tall - the equivalent of a 40-storey building. It was made of 2.3 million blocks of limestone and granite, some weighing 100 tons.

14. The ancient Egyptian city of Kahun was the world’s first planned city. Rectangular and walled, the city was divided into two parts. One part housed the wealthier inhabitants – the scribes, officials and foremen. The other part housed the ordinary people. The streets of the western section in particular, were straight, laid out on a grid, and crossed each other at right angles. A stone gutter, over half a metre wide, ran down the centre of every street.

15. Egyptian mansions were discovered in Kahun - each boasting 70 rooms, divided into four sections or quarters. There was a master’s quarter, quarters for women and servants, quarters for offices and finally, quarters for granaries, each facing a central courtyard. The master’s quarters had an open court with a stone water tank for bathing. Surrounding this was a colonnade.

16 The Labyrinth in the Egyptian city of Hawara with its massive layout, multiple courtyards, chambers and halls, was the very largest building in antiquity. Boasting three thousand rooms, 1,500 of them were above ground and the other 1,500 were underground.

17. Toilets and sewerage systems existed in ancient Egypt. One of the pharaohs built a city now known as Amarna. An American urban planner noted that: “Great importance was attached to cleanliness in Amarna as in other Egyptian cities. Toilets and sewers were in use to dispose waste. Soap was made for washing the body. Perfumes and essences were popular against body odour. A solution of natron was used to keep insects from houses . . . Amarna may have been the first planned ‘garden city’.”

18. Sudan has more pyramids than any other country on earth - even more than Egypt. There are at least 223 pyramids in the Sudanese cities of Al Kurru, Nuri, Gebel Barkal and Meroë. They are generally 20 to 30 metres high and steep sided.

19. The Sudanese city of Meroë is rich in surviving monuments. Becoming the capital of the Kushite Empire between 590 BC until AD 350, there are 84 pyramids in this city alone, many built with their own miniature temple. In addition, there are ruins of a bath house sharing affinities with those of the Romans. Its central feature is a large pool approached by a flight of steps with waterspouts decorated with lion heads.

20. Bling culture has a long and interesting history. Gold was used to decorate ancient Sudanese temples. One writer reported that: “Recent excavations at Meroe and Mussawwarat es-Sufra revealed temples with walls and statues covered with gold leaf”.

21. In around 300 BC, the Sudanese invented a writing script that had twenty-three letters of which four were vowels and there was also a word divider. Hundreds of ancient texts have survived that were in this script. Some are on display in the British Museum.

22. In central Nigeria, West Africa’s oldest civilisation flourished between 1000 BC and 300 BC. Discovered in 1928, the ancient culture was called the Nok Civilisation, named after the village in which the early artefacts were discovered. Two modern scholars, declare that “[a]fter calibration, the period of Nok art spans from 1000 BC until 300 BC”. The site itself is much older going back as early as 4580 or 4290 BC.

23. West Africans built in stone by 1100 BC. In the Tichitt-Walata region of Mauritania, archaeologists have found “large stone masonry villages” that date back to 1100 BC. The villages consisted of roughly circular compounds connected by “well-defined streets”.

24. By 250 BC, the foundations of West Africa’s oldest cities were established such as Old Djenné in Mali.

25. Kumbi Saleh, the capital of Ancient Ghana, flourished from 300 to 1240 AD. Located in modern day Mauritania, archaeological excavations have revealed houses, almost habitable today, for want of renovation and several storeys high. They had underground rooms, staircases and connecting halls. Some had nine rooms. One part of the city alone is estimated to have housed 30,000 people.
26. West Africa had walled towns and cities in the pre-colonial period. Winwood Reade, an English historian visited West Africa in the nineteenth century and commented that: “There are . . . thousands of large walled cities resembling those of Europe in the Middle Ages, or of ancient Greece.”

27. Lord Lugard, an English official, estimated in 1904 that there were 170 walled towns still in existence in the whole of just the Kano province of northern Nigeria.

28. Cheques are not quite as new an invention as we were led to believe. In the tenth century, an Arab geographer, Ibn Haukal, visited a fringe region of Ancient Ghana. Writing in 951 AD, he told of a cheque for 42,000 golden dinars written to a merchant in the city of Audoghast by his partner in Sidjilmessa.

29. Ibn Haukal, writing in 951 AD, informs us that the King of Ghana was “the richest king on the face of the earth” whose pre-eminence was due to the quantity of gold nuggets that had been amassed by the himself and by his predecessors.

30. The Nigerian city of Ile-Ife was paved in 1000 AD on the orders of a female ruler with decorations that originated in Ancient America. Naturally, no-one wants to explain how this took place approximately 500 years before the time of Christopher Columbus!

31. West Africa had bling culture in 1067 AD. One source mentions that when the Emperor of Ghana gives audience to his people: “he sits in a pavilion around which stand his horses caparisoned in cloth of gold: behind him stand ten pages holding shields and gold-mounted swords: and on his right hand are the sons of the princes of his empire, splendidly clad and with gold plaited into their hair . . . The gate of the chamber is guarded by dogs of an excellent breed . . . they wear collars of gold and silver.”

32. Glass windows existed at that time. The residence of the Ghanaian Emperor in 1116 AD was: “A well-built castle, thoroughly fortified, decorated inside with sculptures and pictures, and having glass windows.”

33. The Grand Mosque in the Malian city of Djenné, described as “the largest adobe [clay] building in the world”, was first raised in 1204 AD. It was built on a square plan where each side is 56 metres in length. It has three large towers on one side, each with projecting wooden buttresses.

34. One of the great achievements of the Yoruba was their urban culture. “By the year A.D. 1300,” says a modern scholar, “the Yoruba people built numerous walled cities surrounded by farms”. The cities were Owu, Oyo, Ijebu, Ijesa, Ketu, Popo, Egba, Sabe, Dassa, Egbado, Igbomina, the sixteen Ekiti principalities, Owo and Ondo.

35. Yoruba metal art of the mediaeval period was of world class. One scholar wrote that Yoruba art “would stand comparison with anything which Ancient Egypt, Classical Greece and Rome, or Renaissance Europe had to offer.”

36. In the Malian city of Gao stands the Mausoleum of Askia the Great, a weird sixteenth century edifice that resembles a step pyramid.

37. Thousands of mediaeval tumuli have been found across West Africa. Nearly 7,000 were discovered in north-west Senegal alone spread over nearly 1,500 sites. They were probably built between 1000 and 1300 AD.

38. Excavations at the Malian city of Gao carried out by Cambridge University revealed glass windows. One of the finds was entitled: “Fragments of alabaster window surrounds and a piece of pink window glass, Gao 10th – 14th century.”

39. In 1999 the BBC produced a television series entitled Millennium. The programme devoted to the fourteenth century opens with the following disclosure: “In the fourteenth century, the century of the scythe, natural disasters threatened civilisations with extinction. The Black Death kills more people in Europe, Asia and North Africa than any catastrophe has before. Civilisations which avoid the plague thrive. In West Africa the Empire of Mali becomes the richest in the world.”

40. Malian sailors got to America in 1311 AD, 181 years before Columbus. An Egyptian scholar, Ibn Fadl Al-Umari, published on this sometime around 1342. In the tenth chapter of his book, there is an account of two large maritime voyages ordered by the predecessor of Mansa Musa, a king who inherited the Malian throne in 1312. This mariner king is not named by Al-Umari, but modern writers identify him as Mansa Abubakari II.

41. On a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324 AD, a Malian ruler, Mansa Musa, brought so much money with him that his visit resulted in the collapse of gold prices in Egypt and Arabia. It took twelve years for the economies of the region to normalise.

42. West African gold mining took place on a vast scale. One modern writer said that: “It is estimated that the total amount of gold mined in West Africa up to 1500 was 3,500 tons, worth more than $****30 billion in today’s market.”

43. The old Malian capital of Niani had a 14th century building called the Hall of Audience. It was an surmounted by a dome, adorned with arabesques of striking colours. The windows of an upper floor were plated with wood and framed in silver; those of a lower floor were plated with wood, framed in gold.

44. Mali in the 14th century was highly urbanised. Sergio Domian, an Italian art and architecture scholar, wrote the following about this period: “Thus was laid the foundation of an urban civilisation. At the height of its power, Mali had at least 400 cities, and the interior of the Niger Delta was very densely populated”.

45. The Malian city of Timbuktu had a 14th century population of 115,000 - 5 times larger than mediaeval London. Mansa Musa, built the Djinguerebere Mosque in the fourteenth century. There was the University Mosque in which 25,000 students studied and the Oratory of Sidi Yayia. There were over 150 Koran schools in which 20,000 children were instructed. London, by contrast, had a total 14th century population of 20,000 people.

46. National Geographic recently described Timbuktu as the Paris of the mediaeval world, on account of its intellectual culture. According to Professor Henry Louis Gates, 25,000 university students studied there.

47. Many old West African families have private library collections that go back hundreds of years. The Mauritanian cities of Chinguetti and Oudane have a total of 3,450 hand written mediaeval books. There may be another 6,000 books still surviving in the other city of Walata. Some date back to the 8th century AD. There are 11,000 books in private collections in Niger. Finally, in Timbuktu, Mali, there are about 700,000 surviving books.

48. A collection of one thousand six hundred books was considered a small library for a West African scholar of the 16th century. Professor Ahmed Baba of Timbuktu is recorded as saying that he had the smallest library of any of his friends - he had only 1600 volumes.

49. Concerning these old manuscripts, Michael Palin, in his TV series Sahara, said the imam of Timbuktu “has a collection of scientific texts that clearly show the planets circling the sun. They date back hundreds of years . . . Its convincing evidence that the scholars of Timbuktu knew a lot more than their counterparts in Europe. In the fifteenth century in Timbuktu the mathematicians knew about the rotation of the planets, knew about the details of the eclipse, they knew things which we had to wait for 150 almost 200 years to know in Europe when Galileo and Copernicus came up with these same calculations and were given a very hard time for it.”

50. The Songhai Empire of 16th century West Africa had a government position called Minister for Etiquette and Protocol.
51. The mediaeval Nigerian city of Benin was built to “a scale comparable with the Great Wall of China”. There was a vast system of defensive walling totalling 10,000 miles in all. Even before the full extent of the city walling had become apparent the Guinness Book of Records carried an entry in the 1974 edition that described the city as: “The largest earthworks in the world carried out prior to the mechanical era.”

52. Benin art of the Middle Ages was of the highest quality. An official of the Berlin Museum für Völkerkunde once stated that: “These works from Benin are equal to the very finest examples of European casting technique. Benvenuto Cellini could not have cast them better, nor could anyone else before or after him . . . Technically, these bronzes represent the very highest possible achievement.”

53. Winwood Reade described his visit to the Ashanti Royal Palace of Kumasi in 1874: “We went to the king’s palace, which consists of many courtyards, each surrounded with alcoves and verandahs, and having two gates or doors, so that each yard was a thoroughfare . . . But the part of the palace fronting the street was a stone house, Moorish in its style . . . with a flat roof and a parapet, and suites of apartments on the first floor. It was built by Fanti masons many years ago. The rooms upstairs remind me of Wardour Street. Each was a perfect Old Curiosity Shop. Books in many languages, Bohemian glass, clocks, silver plate, old furniture, Persian rugs, Kidderminster carpets, pictures and engravings, numberless chests and coffers. A sword bearing the inscription From Queen Victoria to the King of Ashantee. A copy of the Times, 17 October 1843. With these were many specimens of Moorish and Ashanti handicraft.”

54. In the mid-nineteenth century, William Clarke, an English visitor to Nigeria, remarked that: “As good an article of cloth can be woven by the Yoruba weavers as by any people . . . in durability, their cloths far excel the prints and home-spuns of Manchester.”

55. The recently discovered 9th century Nigerian city of Eredo was found to be surrounded by a wall that was 100 miles long and seventy feet high in places. The internal area was a staggering 400 square miles.

56. On the subject of cloth, Kongolese textiles were also distinguished. Various European writers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries wrote of the delicate crafts of the peoples living in eastern Kongo and adjacent regions who manufactured damasks, sarcenets, satins, taffeta, cloth of tissue and velvet. Professor DeGraft-Johnson made the curious observation that: “Their brocades, both high and low, were far more valuable than the Italian.”

57. On Kongolese metallurgy of the Middle Ages, one modern scholar wrote that: “There is no doubting . . . the existence of an expert metallurgical art in the ancient Kongo . . . The Bakongo were aware of the toxicity of lead vapours. They devised preventative and curative methods, both pharmacological (massive doses of pawpaw and palm oil) and mechanical (exerting of pressure to free the digestive tract), for combating lead poisoning.”

58. In Nigeria, the royal palace in the city of Kano dates back to the fifteenth century. Begun by Muhammad Rumfa (ruled 1463-99) it has gradually evolved over generations into a very imposing complex. A colonial report of the city from 1902, described it as “a network of buildings covering an area of 33 acres and surrounded by a wall 20 to 30 feet high outside and 15 feet inside . . . in itself no mean citadel”.

59. A sixteenth century traveller visited the central African civilisation of Kanem-Borno and commented that the emperor’s cavalry had golden “stirrups, spurs, bits and buckles.” Even the ruler’s dogs had “chains of the finest gold”.

60. One of the government positions in mediaeval Kanem-Borno was Astronomer Royal.

61. Ngazargamu, the capital city of Kanem-Borno, became one of the largest cities in the seventeenth century world. By 1658 AD, the metropolis, according to an architectural scholar housed “about quarter of a million people”. It had 660 streets. Many were wide and unbending, reflective of town planning.

62. The Nigerian city of Surame flourished in the sixteenth century. Even in ruin it was an impressive sight, built on a horizontal vertical grid. A modern scholar describes it thus: “The walls of Surame are about 10 miles in circumference and include many large bastions or walled suburbs running out at right angles to the main wall. The large compound at Kanta is still visible in the centre, with ruins of many buildings, one of which is said to have been two-storied. The striking feature of the walls and whole ruins is the extensive use of stone and tsokuwa (laterite gravel) or very hard red building mud, evidently brought from a distance. There is a big mound of this near the north gate about 8 feet in height. The walls show regular courses of masonry to a height of 20 feet and more in several places. The best preserved portion is that known as sirati (the bridge) a little north of the eastern gate . . . The main city walls here appear to have provided a very strongly guarded entrance about 30 feet wide.”

63. The Nigerian city of Kano in 1851 produced an estimated 10 million pairs of sandals and 5 million hides each year for export.

64. In 1246 AD Dunama II of Kanem-Borno exchanged embassies with Al-Mustansir, the king of Tunis. He sent the North African court a costly present, which apparently included a giraffe. An old chronicle noted that the rare animal “created a sensation in Tunis”.

65. By the third century BC the city of Carthage on the coast of Tunisia was opulent and impressive. It had a population of 700,000 and may even have approached a million. Lining both sides of three streets were rows of tall houses six storeys high.

66. The Ethiopian city of Axum has a series of 7 giant obelisks that date from perhaps 300 BC to 300 AD. They have details carved into them that represent windows and doorways of several storeys. The largest obelisk, now fallen, is in fact “the largest monolith ever made anywhere in the world”. It is 108 feet long, weighs a staggering 500 tons, and represents a thirteen-storey building.

67. Ethiopia minted its own coins over 1,500 years ago. One scholar wrote that: “Almost no other contemporary state anywhere in the world could issue in gold, a statement of sovereignty achieved only by Rome, Persia, and the Kushan kingdom in northern India at the time.”

68. The Ethiopian script of the 4th century AD influenced the writing script of Armenia. A Russian historian noted that: “Soon after its creation, the Ethiopic vocalised script began to influence the scripts of Armenia and Georgia. D. A. Olderogge suggested that Mesrop Mashtotz used the vocalised Ethiopic script when he invented the Armenian alphabet.”

69. “In the first half of the first millennium CE,” says a modern scholar, Ethiopia “was ranked as one of the world’s greatest empires”. A Persian cleric of the third century AD identified it as the third most important state in the world after Persia and Rome.

70. Ethiopia has 11 underground mediaeval churches built by being carved out of the ground. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries AD, Roha became the new capital of the Ethiopians. Conceived as a New Jerusalem by its founder, Emperor Lalibela (c.1150-1230), it contains 11 churches, all carved out of the rock of the mountains by hammer and chisel. All of the temples were carved to a depth of 11 metres or so below ground level. The largest is the House of the Redeemer, a staggering 33.7 metres long, 23.7 metres wide and 11.5 metres deep.

71. Lalibela is not the only place in Ethiopia to have such wonders. A cotemporary archaeologist reports research that was conducted in the region in the early 1970’s when: “startling numbers of churches built in caves or partially or completely cut from the living rock were revealed not only in Tigre and Lalibela but as far south as Addis Ababa. Soon at least 1,500 were known. At least as many more probably await revelation.”

72. In 1209 AD Emperor Lalibela of Ethiopia sent an embassy to Cairo bringing the sultan unusual gifts including an elephant, a hyena, a zebra, and a giraffe.

73. In Southern Africa, there are at least 600 stone built ruins in the regions of Zimbabwe, Mozambique and South Africa. These ruins are called Mazimbabwe in Shona, the Bantu language of the builders, and means great revered house and “signifies court”.

74. The Great Zimbabwe was the largest of these ruins. It consists of 12 clusters of buildings, spread over 3 square miles. Its outer walls were made from 100,000 tons of granite bricks. In the fourteenth century, the city housed 18,000 people, comparable in size to that of London of the same period.

75. Bling culture existed in this region. At the time of our last visit, the Horniman Museum in London had exhibits of headrests with the caption: “Headrests have been used in Africa since the time of the Egyptian pharaohs. Remains of some headrests, once covered in gold foil, have been found in the ruins of Great Zimbabwe and burial sites like Mapungubwe dating to the twelfth century after Christ.”

76. Dr Albert Churchward, author of Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man, pointed out that writing was found in one of the stone built ruins: “Lt.-Col. E. L. de Cordes . . . who was in South Africa for three years, informed the writer that in one of the ‘Ruins’ there is a ‘stone-chamber,’ with a vast quantity of Papyri, covered with old Egyptian hieroglyphics. A Boer hunter discovered this, and a large quantity was used to light a fire with, and yet still a larger quantity remained there now.”

77. On bling culture, one seventeenth century visitor to southern African empire of Monomotapa, that ruled over this vast region, wrote that: “The people dress in various ways: at court of the Kings their grandees wear cloths of rich silk, damask, satin, gold and silk cloth; these are three widths of satin, each width four covados [2.64m], each sewn to the next, sometimes with gold lace in between, trimmed on two sides, like a carpet, with a gold and silk fringe, sewn in place with a two fingers’ wide ribbon, woven with gold roses on silk.”

78. Southern Africans mined gold on an epic scale. One modern writer tells us that: “The estimated amount of gold ore mined from the entire region by the ancients was staggering, exceeding 43 million tons. The ore yielded nearly 700 tons of pure gold which today would be valued at over $******7.5 billion.”

79. Apparently the Monomotapan royal palace at Mount Fura had chandeliers hanging from the ceiling. An eighteenth century geography book provided the following data: “The inside consists of a great variety of sumptuous apartments, spacious and lofty halls, all adorned with a magnificent cotton tapestry, the manufacture of the country. The floors, cielings [sic], beams and rafters are all either gilt or plated with gold curiously wrought, as are also the chairs of state, tables, benches &c. The candle-sticks and branches are made of ivory inlaid with gold, and hang from the cieling by chains of the same metal, or of silver gilt.”

80. Monomotapa had a social welfare system. Antonio Bocarro, a Portuguese contemporary, informs us that the Emperor: “shows great charity to the blind and maimed, for these are called the king’s poor, and have land and revenues for their subsistence, and when they wish to pass through the kingdoms, wherever they come food and drinks are given to them at the public cost as long as they remain there, and when they leave that place to go to another they are provided with what is necessary for their journey, and a guide, and some one to carry their wallet to the next village. In every place where they come there is the same obligation.”

81. Many southern Africans have indigenous and pre-colonial words for ‘gun’. Scholars have generally been reluctant to investigate or explain this fact.

82. Evidence discovered in 1978 showed that East Africans were making steel for more than 1,500 years: “Assistant Professor of Anthropology Peter Schmidt and Professor of Engineering Donald H. Avery have found as long as 2,000 years ago Africans living on the western shores of Lake Victoria had produced carbon steel in preheated forced draft furnaces, a method that was technologically more sophisticated than any developed in Europe until the mid-nineteenth century.”

83. Ruins of a 300 BC astronomical observatory was found at Namoratunga in Kenya. Africans were mapping the movements of stars such as Triangulum, Aldebaran, Bellatrix, Central Orion, etcetera, as well as the moon, in order to create a lunar calendar of 354 days.

84. Autopsies and caesarean operations were routinely and effectively carried out by surgeons in pre-colonial Uganda. The surgeons routinely used antiseptics, anaesthetics and cautery iron. Commenting on a Ugandan caesarean operation that appeared in the Edinburgh Medical Journal in 1884, one author wrote: “The whole conduct of the operation . . . suggests a skilled long-practiced surgical team at work conducting a well-tried and familiar operation with smooth efficiency.”

85. Sudan in the mediaeval period had churches, cathedrals, monasteries and castles. Their ruins still exist today.

86. The mediaeval Nubian Kingdoms kept archives. From the site of Qasr Ibrim legal texts, documents and correspondence were discovered. An archaeologist informs us that: “On the site are preserved thousands of documents in Meroitic, Latin, Greek, Coptic, Old Nubian, Arabic and Turkish.”

87. Glass windows existed in mediaeval Sudan. Archaeologists found evidence of window glass at the Sudanese cities of Old Dongola and Hambukol.

88. Bling culture existed in the mediaeval Sudan. Archaeologists found an individual buried at the Monastery of the Holy Trinity in the city of Old Dongola. He was clad in an extremely elaborate garb consisting of costly textiles of various fabrics including gold thread. At the city of Soba East, there were individuals buried in fine clothing, including items with golden thread.

89. Style and fashion existed in mediaeval Sudan. A dignitary at Jebel Adda in the late thirteenth century AD was interned with a long coat of red and yellow patterned damask folded over his body. Underneath, he wore plain cotton trousers of long and baggy cut. A pair of red leather slippers with turned up toes lay at the foot of the coffin. The body was wrapped in enormous pieces of gold brocaded striped silk.

90. Sudan in the ninth century AD had housing complexes with bath rooms and piped water. An archaeologist wrote that Old Dongola, the capital of Makuria, had: “a[n] . . . eighth to . . . ninth century housing complex. The houses discovered here differ in their hitherto unencountered spatial layout as well as their functional programme (water supply installation, bathroom with heating system) and interiors decorated with murals.”

91. In 619 AD, the Nubians sent a gift of a giraffe to the Persians.

92. The East Coast, from Somalia to Mozambique, has ruins of well over 50 towns and cities. They flourished from the ninth to the sixteenth centuries AD.

93. Chinese records of the fifteenth century AD note that Mogadishu had houses of “four or five storeys high”.

94. Gedi, near the coast of Kenya, is one of the East African ghost towns. Its ruins, dating from the fourteenth or fifteenth centuries, include the city walls, the palace, private houses, the Great Mosque, seven smaller mosques, and three pillar tombs.

95. The ruined mosque in the Kenyan city of Gedi had a water purifier made of limestone for recycling water.

96. The palace in the Kenyan city of Gedi contains evidence of piped water controlled by taps. In addition it had bathrooms and indoor toilets.

97. A visitor in 1331 AD considered the Tanzanian city of Kilwa to be of world class. He wrote that it was the “principal city on the coast the greater part of whose inhabitants are Zanj of very black complexion.” Later on he says that: “Kilwa is one of the most beautiful and well-constructed cities in the world. The whole of it is elegantly built.”

98. Bling culture existed in early Tanzania. A Portuguese chronicler of the sixteenth century wrote that: “[T]hey are finely clad in many rich garments of gold and silk and cotton, and the women as well; also with much gold and silver chains and bracelets, which they wear on their legs and arms, and many jewelled earrings in their ears”.

99. In 1961 a British archaeologist, found the ruins of Husuni Kubwa, the royal palace of the Tanzanian city of Kilwa. It had over a hundred rooms, including a reception hall, galleries, courtyards, terraces and an octagonal swimming pool.

100. In 1414 the Kenyan city of Malindi sent ambassadors to China carrying a gift that created a sensation at the Imperial Court. It was, of course, a giraffe.